You might have problems using Safari browser. We suggest you use Chrome.
It has been explained to us by a techie that problems can occur when you are not using the Chrome browser. Checking up brought me to this information dd. January 2019: Chrome is used by 62.9% of global web users (source: W3Counter)! Safari comes in second at 14.3%!
So our advice is to switch over to Chrome.
This issue is a follow-on of the browser one above.
Chrome has 2 “Cookies” settings– one is the general one, the other is for 3rd parties. As PET uses a licensed calculator by Carbon Footprint Ltd (UK), when you press “Calculate and Add to footprint,” the “enable cookies” message could be activated if you’re using another browser.
What to do? Make sure you’re using Chrome. If you then open your computer’s “Settings” and type “cookies” into the search box, you should see all the cookie-settings highlighted. Check that they’re all “on.”
- The online calculators on this web site follow the methodology outlined by the UK Government, and currently using 2018 Government Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Methodology.The only exceptions to this are Country specific electricity factors:
- Many publicly available country specific electricity emissions factors are provided for free within the calculator tool. A full list of these along with the sources is provided by Carbon Footprint Ltd in “Country Specific Electricity Factors – August 2018“.
- For countries where freely published emissions factors are not available, you can purchase IEA Emission Factors and enter them into the house / building tab of the calculator
- Where freely available the emissions factors provided for free include both Generation and Transmission and Distribution (T&D) losses. The calculations do not, however, include the Well to Tank (WTT) Emissions associated with extraction, refining, distribution, storage of the fuels used in the power stations.
The calculator uses emissions factors which take account of all greenhouse gases (i.e. CO2, N2O, methane etc.) released by the activities, with the results presented in units of metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent (CO2e). In most cases that means the results will be slightly higher than if calculating CO2 only. The calculations of emissions from fuels are Scope 1, meaning the direct GHG emissions from the combustion of the fuels. The calculations do not include the Well to Tank (WTT) Scope 3 Emissions associated with extraction, refining, distribution, storage and retail of the fuels.
When calculating emissions for Wood the emissions factors for Wood Pellets is used. The calculator also assumes domestic coal is used in both the Business and Household calculators.
- Secondary footprint tab.
In developed countries, transportation and household energy use make up the largest component of an individual’s carbon footprint. Such emissions are included as part of an individual’s “primary” carbon footprint, representing the emissions over which an individual has direct control (what you calculate now, on this site).The remainder of an individual’s carbon footprint is called the “secondary” carbon footprint, representing carbon emissions associated with the consumption of goods and services. The secondary footprint includes carbon emissions emitted by food production. It can be used to account for diets that contain higher proportions of meat, which requires a greater amount of energy and nutrients to produce than vegetables and grains, and foods that have been transported long distances. The manufacturing and transportation of consumer goods are additional contributors to the secondary carbon footprint. For example, the carbon footprint of a bottle of water includes the CO2 or CO2 equivalent emitted during the manufacture of the bottle itself plus the amount emitted during the transportation of the bottle to the consumer.
This issue happens when, on your last visit to the calculator, you didn’t follow the offset process through right to the end. Only by submitting payment is the calculator brought back to zero.
(a) Go back to the calculator, to each of the calculator tabs you used and do what’s in the image ⇒
(b) then, on the final “result tab,” check you’re now happy with the total, and click on “offset.”
On the offsetting form you are asked to choose your ‘status’ vis à vis the Findhorn Ecovillage. The definition of these emissions is geography based—ie carbon emissions that occur during activities of residents of the Park and/or benefiting the Findhorn Foundation at the Park & Cluny (plus Erraid & Iona).
The status of guests, visitors, conference participants and resident Findhorn Foundation staff/longterm guests, business are reasonably self-explanatory, we think 😉 However here are some exceptions:
- non-resident FFstaff/NFA/THA personal household emissions belong in the “Other (non-resident)” category, while
- non-res.FFstaff work & work travel emissions belong in the “business in the Park” category and
- non-res.NFA&THA staff work & work travel emissions belong in their respective resident category! any questions? [email protected]
Follow the applicable “if” , “who (& what)” and “emitting where” in order to find your right status.
Our CarbonOffset Projects
- can prove that they could not have happened without carbon offset money.
This is the guarantee that your money has an effect.
- can prove that they could not have happened without carbon offset money.
- are certified according to the highest international standards.
All our projects have one or more of the following standards.
Our carbon offset Projects list offers you variety and choice. Other than simply offsetting your emissions, many projects also provide additional benefits such as
- developing local biodiversity,
- food security,
- clean water
- and health.
The price differences have to do with the
- size of the project,
- additional positive effects which individual projects bring, and
- the local standard of living: high cost areas have high cost projects.
Surely we should be solving our problems first…
Yes, but then again the problems are much larger in the developing world. The graph below shows metric tons of carbon emissions per capita and the number of people living in extreme poverty in various global regions over the past 30 years. What is clear is that regions that have seen extreme reductions in poverty, specifically East Asia and the Pacific and South Asia, have increased their carbon emissions by almost 200%. The only region that has decreased its carbon emissions over this time period, sub-Saharan Africa, has seen the number of people living in extreme poverty almost double.
Reducing poverty rates and boosting economic growth is at the top of many of the developing nation’s agendas. It is extremely important for the world to figure out how to decouple economic development and carbon emissions.
The short answer is therefore:
- There’s obviously a need to help ‘developing countries’ by investing in relatively expensive non-fossil fuel energy options.
- Perhaps it is a good thing for developed countries to give the example of really valuing our global-siblings’ “me-too” yearnings, rather than just protecting our superior lifestyle. We could of course decide to change the global socio-economic paradigm—whichever route is easier or more moral…
- Will, Ingenuity, Technology* and big money have proved fruitful in actually achieving the developed world’s quantum leaps in the past eg. the Space Race from 2 Aug 1955 ~ 20 July 1969. So, why not in global energy/transport areas too? Tesla is proving that W.I.T.* & cash can radically change the 1st world; so let’s also ‘push’ resources towards needier countries who desire the lifestyles we’re constantly selling—thanks only to fossil fuels).
- In the meanwhile the developed world (you and me) can do both: review/change our own life-style choices and help the poor billions who (surely) have a right to more material ‘happiness.’
Thus, since September 2019, PET is ‘buddying’ its UK tree planting project with its Brazilian Rainforest offset project: plant one tree+offset one tonne CO₂ respectively. In this way your ‘developed world’ carbon offset gets multiplied—neutralising your 1st world emissions and producing surplus oxygen in the ‘developing world.’
Let’s not forget that the holistic and real challenge will be to make the planet’s lifestyle choices functional, adaptable and sustainable, and not just in our lifetime.
Check out the sources below:
uk tree planting
Here are the latest greenhouse gas (GHG=CO2e) figures for the UK from the Office of National Statistics.
Lulu (Land Use, and Land Use Change and Forestry) pumps O2 into the atmosphere. Below, the above UK info vis-à-vis Europe et la belle France:
Transport, power stations, business & residential, other energy, industrial processes (in that order) cause the most GHGs in the UK.
While UK per capita GDP is growing, the manufacturing economy has decreased slightly and the service sector developed strongly1 territorial based emissions line.. Consumption is normally the largest component of GDP.
The service sector development has, as it were, pushed manufacturing/GHG production processes offshore. The UK in 2017 is the 10th largest global exporter and the 5th largest importer!
And what does the UK balance of payments for manufactured/GHG products per capita look like, in comparison to four other large trading nations: USA, PRC, Russia, Japan, India?
Prosperity is a primary driver of carbon dioxide emissions, but clearly policy and technological choices make a difference.
Of the greenhouse gases still produced in the UK, the largest is carbon dioxide whose sources are both natural and human. Natural sources include decomposition, ocean release and respiration. Human sources come from activities like the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas.
The UK’s carbon dioxide emissions are not far from the global average 4.8 in 2017: 5.8t per person (Portugal 5.3 tonnes; 5.5t in France). The choice of energy sources plays a key role: in the UK, Portugal and France, a much higher share of electricity is produced from nuclear and renewable sources–thus a much lower share of electricity is produced from fossil fuels (in 2015, only 6% of France’s electricity came from fossil fuels, compared to 55% in Germany).
So, given the UK’s
- GHG-emission efficiencies that have been achieved through better technology leading to reductions in industrial and business energy use, reduced electricity use, increased use of renewable energy and the replacement of coal with gas;
- increasing GDP through the service sector rather than by increasing manufacturing; and
- rising trade deficit, by our importing more and more goods;
we can conclude that there’s still a lot of carbon reducing work to be done. The past few decades have seen a dramatic rise in exports of (a) goods from other countries such as China, which has a very coal-intensive electricity generation mix. Couple this with the fact that UK efficiency measures have mostly emphasised residential/manufacturing and business energy solutions rather than (b) transport and (c) farming GHG-emission issues. It is these three major areas that will have an important impact on average UK consumer life-styles.
‘Imported’ GHG-emissions have increased over the past two decades, so that they now make up around half of the UK’s Climate Footprint, as table3 above shows. The UK’s production GHG-emissions have fallen fast, but alas imports have offset much of that gain—imports in the following areas:
It’s important to note that the chart counts mobile phone contracts that come with a phone as a service, along with the whole public sector and food bought in restaurants. Any emissions produced while providing these to the end user are counted as services.
The UK’s reliance on imported GHG-emissions is relatively unusual, however. Most countries import only 10 or 15% of their carbon footprints. This situation is less a case of outsourcing factories overseas and more of our consuming lots more from the globalised world (a sort of reversed British Empire effect). UK manufacturing hasn’t decreased that much, but imports fuelled by cheaper labour have met the growing demand.
As mentioned in the FAQ about why PET has lots of non-UK offset projects, it is extremely important for the Findhorn Ecovillage Community, Scotland, the UK and the world to figure out how to decouple the necessary economic development and GHG-emissions. Now here’s a personal and community challenge!
You might have read a tonne of words on the subject… Here are a few pictures:
Carbon offsetting has been compared to the selling of ‘indulgences’ by the medieval Church, a way of assuaging the guilt evoked by the carbon emissions associated with modern life, i.e. heating, cooling, driving and especially flying. In like manner, offsetting is critiqued for sending funds to developing world projects rather than those ‘worthy projects’ closer to home with which we are familiar and may be more predisposed to support. So, here are a few words to explain where we’re coming from.
In December 2015, under the auspices of the United Nations 195 countries agreed in Paris to slow global warming. Carbon emissions are its primary cause and reducing them is the primary goal of the Paris Agreement. It applies to governments, businesses and individuals, all of whom are asked to reduce their respective carbon footprints. But where further reductions are not possible, carbon offsetting is allowed and encouraged by the Paris Agreement, especially when offset projects are duly selected, monitored and verified for maximum impact. Sadly, most of our ‘local projects’ are not.
The Findhorn Ecovillage Community is committed to being part of this world-wide effort and has, among other initiatives, established a carbon offset service through the Community Benefit Charity PET. It is further supported in this effort by the Findhorn Foundation and New Findhorn Association (NFA).
PET’s Offset Projects have been chosen for their social and environmental benefits, primarily in developing countries where the effects of climate change are most severe. And in addition to reducing global emissions, offsetting there provides much needed employment, health improvement, biodiversity and social benefits to impoverished communities (project details here).
Carbon offsetting helps to combat global climate change, often functioning within the business sector as an internal ‘carbon tax’ that spurs creativity in reducing &/or avoiding emissions. In this and other respects, our offset projects also serve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals whose realisation, together with the Paris Agreement, will create a more sustainable world.
And if you want more convincing? Listen to this from COP24, Poland December 2018.
Official figures from 2018.
The CO₂ emission factor for electricity is taken to be 0.527 kg / kWh
There is a reduction of 25% in CO₂ emissions for the green tariffs listed.
The CO₂ factor for natural gas is 0.203 kg / kWh
Heating: the following CO₂ factors are used:
For oil: 2.96 kg / litre For coal: 3.26 kg / kg For wood: 0.10 kg / kg For bottled gas: 3.68 kg / kg
- Non-farmed fish counts as organic.
- The fertilizer used in growing food that is not organic causes greenhouse gas emissions through nitrous oxide released from the soil, and through CO₂ emissions from the manufacture and transport of fertilizer.
- Meat and dairy production generates methane from animals and slurry, and CO₂ from the energy used in farm operations.
- Food transport, packaging and processing all require energy, releasing CO₂.
- Food decomposition in landfill sites releases methane.
- Edible food can be wasted because too much is prepared, or because it has gone past its use-by date and so on.
Some greenhouse gas emissions are currently almost impossible to avoid:
methane from tilling and soil management, and CO₂ from arable farms and the operation of retail stores. These amount to around 0.2 tonnes per person/year.
Carbon dioxide is generated by the health service, schools, social services, the armed forces and so on.
You have no direct control over this amount. This amounts to 1.1 tonnes per person per year for the UK.
- the CO₂ emission factor for bus travel is taken to be 100 g/mile
- the CO₂ emission factor for rail travel is taken to be 100 g/mile
- air travel assumes emissions of ¼ tCO₂equivalent per hour flying (roughly 500 g/mile)
Your miscellaneous spending is all your other spending i.e. on:
hotels and other holidays
clothing & footwear
alcohol & tobacco
post and telecommunications
books, newspapers & magazines
Above-average (5 tonnes CO₂) Average (3.4 tonnes CO₂) Below-average (2.4 tonnes CO₂) Much below-average (1.4 tonnes CO₂).
UK average Greenhouse gases emissions per person is 13.4t (2018)
www.carbonindependent.org (the source of the overview figures) states: “There is reasonable agreement with our estimate of 9.84 tonnes CO₂ per person per year, and with our estimate of total greenhouse gases of 13.4 tonnes equivalent per person per year.
The range of figures reflects the difficulties in calculating an accurate up-to-date average figure:
- One problem is that detailed figures tend to be not up to date. The most detailed figures available for the UK seem to be those in the source figures. This is a document published in 2006, quoting figures published by the University of Surrey in 2005, based on UK Government statistics of 2002 and 2004. The total has clearly changed since then.
- It is not clear how to allow for greenhouse gases other than CO₂. The two most important are methane and nitrous oxide. Methane persists in the atmosphere for around a decade, and nitrous oxide for about a century, whereas there is much uncertainty about the fate of CO₂ emissions. So while we know that methane is generated by deforestation, and the production of rice and cattle, it is not clear how we should convert methane generated by someone’s meat-eating lifestyle into an equivalent amount of CO₂, because it depends on which timescale we are considering.
But for the purposes of informing people about the ways in which their lifestyle is damaging the world, and providing a single summary figure in the form of calculator, it is necessary to pick on one timescale – and 100 years is the standard figure chosen.
The ‘sustainable’ figure of 1.5 tonnes per year is uncertain – an amount that the world’s oceans may be able to absorb. In this sense, it is sustainable – but stores of fossil fuels are finite, and so no emission level is sustainable in the very long term.”